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Diamond is a metastable allotrope of carbon, where the carbon atoms are arranged in a variation of the face-centered cubic crystal structure called a diamond lattice. Diamond is less stable than graphite, but the conversion rate from diamond to graphite is negligible at standard conditions. Diamond is renowned as a material with superlative physical qualities, […]


Coltan (short for columbite–tantalite and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted. The niobium-dominant mineral in coltan is columbite (after niobium’s original American name, columbium), and the tantalum-dominant mineral is tantalite. Tantalum from coltan is used to manufacture tantalum capacitors, used in electronic […]


A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide). The red color is caused mainly by the presence of the element chromium. The quality of a ruby is determined by its color, cut, and clarity, which, along with carat weight, affect its value. The brightest and most […]


Tanzanite is a rare gemstone with similar color after undergoing artificial heat treatment to form a deep blue coloration. Naturally formed tanzanite is extremely rare. Tanzanite is noted for its remarkably strong trichroism, appearing alternately sapphire blue, violet and burgundy depending on crystal orientation. Tanzanite can also appear differently when viewed under alternate lighting conditions. […]

Gold Nuggets

Nuggets are gold fragments weathered out of an original lode.They often show signs of abrasive polishing by stream action, and sometimes still contain inclusions of quartz or other lode matrix material.